The decisive condition for maintaining the poultry stock and increasing the profitability of poultry farming in large industrial-type poultry farms is the implementation of a set of planned preventive measures aimed at preventing the incidence of poultry and increasing its productivity.
This task should be solved by all specialists from a veterinarian and livestock specialist to engineering and technical personnel. In order to competently control the correct observance of technological processes in poultry farming, the veterinarian must know not only his special veterinary issues, but also be familiar with the necessary methods of feeding and keeping technology, which directly affect the productivity and incidence of the bird.
If under conditions of LPH and peasant farms, the bird can largely regulate the regime of the day and the intake, especially with free-range content, of minerals and vitamins into the body, then in conditions of industrial poultry farming, specialists together with engineering and technical personnel should eliminate violations in the feeding and maintenance of poultry .
First of all, it is necessary to constantly take care of the acquisition of a full-fledged brood herd, the provision of breeding layers throughout the year with complete feeds and strictly observe the regime of care and maintenance.
For incubation, you must carefully select the eggs. A breeding hatching egg must meet the requirements not only in terms of weight, shape, shell condition, but also in the content of vitamin A in the yolks, for which purpose the eggs coming to the poultry hatchery and hatchery should be subjected to thorough laboratory analysis.
In chicken, hatching eggs must meet the following requirements: the weight of the eggs is not lower than 50 g, the average shell thickness is 0.33 mm, the specific gravity of eggs is 1.075-1.090, the content of vitamin A in 1 g of yolk is at least 6 μg, carotenoids 18 μg, riboflavin 4 μg , hatchability - at least 85% of the eggs laid.
From biologically defective eggs received for incubation, dystrophic chickens are hatched, among which there is a further mortality, despite good post-incubation conditions for further rearing.
The productivity of poultry hatched from defective eggs is very low. Compliance with the rules of the incubation regime by poultry owners is one of the decisive indicators of the conservation of young growth, productivity and morbidity of the bird.
Specialists should exercise daily control over the provision of adult poultry and young animals with complete feeds. When monitoring, special attention should be paid to the balance of the diet for proteins, vitamins and minerals. A protein diet should satisfy the bird's need for protein and be complete in terms of the content of essential amino acids, therefore, animal feed must be included in the diet of the bird.
It should not be allowed that the proportion of protein in the diet exceeds 25-30%, and animal feed -5-7%. When antibiotics, vitamin B12 or choline are introduced into the diet, the need for poultry in animal feed decreases. When overfeeding a bird with an excess of protein, it causes significant harm to it due to poisoning of the body with uric acid salts.
Throughout the entire period of life, young and adult birds should be provided, taking into account the physiological state and productivity, with mineral feed containing sodium, calcium, phosphorus and trace elements. At poultry farms, the need for poultry in mineral feed is provided, as a rule, at the expense of specialized compound feeds.
Provision of poultry in vitamins is achieved by the constant introduction of herbal flour, hydroponic greens, succulent feed (carrots, pumpkin, cabbage, potatoes, etc.) into the diet. With a lack of natural sources of vitamins, concentrates of vitamins A, D, E, yeast, choline, etc. are introduced into the diet.
In order to prevent atony of the gastrointestinal tract do not allow dietary overload of fiber (not more than 4-6% of the diet) and monitor the availability of gravel or shell.
For the prevention of young waste, it is necessary to carefully observe the feeding regimen, the quality and preparation of feed for feeding. In the post-incubation period, young animals are fed 5-6 times a day with a mash of mealy, vitamin and mineral feeds, whole grains begin to be introduced into the diet from 1.5-2 months of age. Owners of LPH and peasant farms are recommended to widely use yogurt, acidophilus, cottage cheese, acidophilus-broth cultures for feeding young animals.
The bird should always be provided plenty of clean drinking water with a temperature of at least 12 °.
All feed that comes into the economy, and primarily feed of animal origin (meat, meat, bone, fish, etc.) except organoleptic control must undergo microbiological control. Owners of private household farms and peasant farms need to organize three groups of birds and check the feed they feed: the first is the normal norm, the second is the double norm, the third group is left as a control (at the previous feed).
In poultry farming, as in no other livestock industry, the decisive condition for the prevention of poultry diseases is compliance with animal health conditions and care. Poultry houses should be built in elevated places, mainly with sandy loam soil, not closer than 500 meters from residential and livestock buildings and 1000m from chemical enterprises.
Ventilation and heating devices must meet the requirements of compliance with the temperature and humidity conditions. The optimum temperature for cell laying hens is 10-12 °
, relative humidity should not exceed 55-65%. In the first 20 days after incubation, young animals are kept at the following temperature: chickens at 28-29 °, turkey poults at 29-31 °, ducklings and goose at 27-28 °. In the future, the temperature is gradually reduced by about 3-4 ° per week. Chickens and turkey poults from 1.5 months old, and goslings and ducklings from 3 weeks of age do not need additional heating in spring and summer.
A prerequisite for the prevention of diseases of adult poultry and young animals is strict adherence to planting standards, according to recommendations and instructions in accordance with the growing method adopted by the farm (cell, battery, on the floor, etc.).
When picking groups (layers, broilers, growing young animals, etc.), it is necessary to select birds of the same age. When keeping laying hens of different ages in the general house, young animals under 5 months of age under long daylight hours and plentiful feeding get sick with salpingoperitonitis, their metabolism is impaired, which leads to early culling of the bird. During the cultivation of waterfowl, turkeys, as well as individual poultry farms with a livestock of laying hens, in the summertime walking practice of broodstock and young animals, as well as camp maintenance in mobile homes, is widely practiced. When keeping the bird on the floor or deep litter at the house, it is advisable to have areas for walking (tanning beds). Based on ½-1/6 usable area of the room.
When keeping ducks in non-flowing closed reservoirs, bird owners must strictly observe the landing rate (no more than 150-200 heads per 1 ha of water mirror).
Young birds of waterfowl are kept on separate ponds, separately from adult birds, ponds (stagnant ponds) are used by the owners in such a way that they do not place young animals on those ponds where the adult bird was the previous year.
When keeping hens in a room, they carefully monitor the observance of daylight hours, taking into account the physiological state and productivity of the bird. It is recommended to use artificial irradiation of poultry with mercury-quartz or UV lamps.
An important link in the prevention of poultry diseases is the maintenance of poultry houses and the surrounding area in good sanitary condition.
Owners of private household farms and peasant farms with a bird in their holdings should conduct proper preparation before the house is settled by a bird, namely:
- conduct a thorough mechanical cleaning of the room from the old litter and chicken manure,
- after mechanical cleaning, disinfect the premises and equipment with a hot 2% caustic soda solution or other disinfector,
- to whitewash the walls and ceiling with a solution of freshly slaked lime,
- a few days before the bird is planted in the house, we lay a litter, the thickness of which should be 5-6 cm in summer and 10-15 cm in winter. At the same time, the used litter should be loose and well adsorb the liquid litter with the pathogenic microflora in it. As the owners of LPH and KFH, the litter should be replaced regularly with fresh. In those places where it is contaminated faster (near feeders and drinkers) it must be changed as often as possible,
- Before entering the house, we equip a deokovryk soaked in a disinfectant solution (it is better to use a 5% solution of creolin). In the summer, it is periodically moistened, and in winter it must be placed inside the house, adding 8-10% sodium chloride solution to it. There should always be a clean litter in the nests of laying hens,
- for the prevention of parasites in the house of the poultry there should be a box with wood ash mixed with powder insecticides. Owners of poultry should conduct sanitary days at least once a month in poultry houses and poultry farms during which they clean, whitewash, disinfect and perform minor repairs of premises and Owners should remember that their observance of hygiene standards of feeding and maintenance, in addition to the prevention of non-communicable diseases, helps to increase the immunobiological resistance of birds to inf infection and invasive diseases. An important measure to preserve the health of the bird and increase its productivity in conditions of intensive industrial poultry farming is the conduct of routine clinical and laboratory examinations of the bird, including selective clinical examinations, blood and feces, post-mortem examinations, special studies to exclude infectious and invasive diseases.
In order to create a healthy, highly productive livestock, poultry farms conduct medical examinations. When conducting a clinical examination:
- Clinical study of livestock. When conducting a clinical study, the behavior of the bird in its natural state is studied (food intake, drowsiness, coloring of skin derivatives, molting, biting, paresis and paralysis of the extremities, the number and color of litter, etc.), after which a selective study of individual bird specimens with thermometry is carried out, examination of the oral cavity and larynx, palpation, etc.
- The study of the type and level of feeding, microclimate, age and breed composition of the bird, incidence, mortality and culling of birds according to statistical data, methods of general and specific prevention.
- Selected postmortem autopsy of several specimens of birds of different age groups.
- Special laboratory diagnostic tests of poultry, embryos and eggs: selective blood tests for total protein, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, determination of vitamin A in the liver, at least 100 embryos are opened from each batch of incubated eggs to determine the causes of embryonic mortality, from each batch take 10-20 eggs to determine the thickness and strength of the shell, specific gravity, protein and yolk index, yolk content of vitamin A, carotenoids and riboflavin.
Based on the results of the clinical examination, measures are taken for group prevention and therapy aimed at eliminating the incidence and increasing the productivity of the bird. The act of medical examination is discussed at an expanded production meeting, where responsible officials are appointed for the implementation of the planned points in the events.
The text of the scientific work on the topic "Population studies of birds with stationary multi-year capture and tagging"
Russian Ornithological Journal 2010, Volume 19, Express release 564: 659-670
Population studies of birds with stationary multi-year capture and tagging
Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, University Embankment, 1.
Received April 16, 2010
Population-ecological studies of animals began to develop only at the beginning of the twentieth century. Their goal was to study a variety of natural factors affecting the formation and transformation of natural populations, which created the basis for rational nature management and nature conservation. In our time, the intensification of population and environmental studies is determined by the need for a detailed identification of all biological mechanisms that underlie the formation and dynamics of the structure of populations and communities of living organisms.
One of the relevant areas of biological research in the last quarter century is the study of the dynamics of the number and structure of animal populations in different natural conditions. The knowledge of regulatory mechanisms that support a certain number of natural populations consists of studies of variations in demographic parameters - fertility, mortality, age and gender composition, emigration and immigration processes. The study of changes in abundance and age structure is especially important in connection with current trends in global climate warming and increasing urbanization.
Many studies of population dynamics were carried out on birds, which determined the appearance of various hypotheses about the patterns of change in numbers and made a major contribution to the ecology of animal populations. Population ecology is one of the most important areas of ornithological research. In the arsenal of his methods, along with traditional visual observations, there exists a method of individual labeling — ringing — that has long been shown to be effective. Over a hundred years of its existence, ringing has provided significant success in many areas of ornithology, especially in the study of migration and demography. In Europe, for example, about 4 million birds ring every year, and over 2 million ring returns have been received over the 20th century (Spina 1998).
Most bird ringing organizations focus their efforts on trapping and tagging migratory birds, yielding significant results in the first year of operation. However, comprehensive population studies are possible only with stationary capture and banding of nesting birds and subsequent long-term monitoring of tagged individuals. This method allows you to obtain accurate data on many aspects of the biology of the studied species of birds, which is almost impossible with other research methods. Studying breeding birds, even occasionally, is often accompanied by banding of chicks, and sometimes adult birds.Nevertheless, only the long-term systematic labeling of individuals of the same population in the same places through the annual capture and banding of adult birds, their chicks and young birds serves as an inexhaustible source of accumulation of the most valuable data that form the basis for a thorough population study.
In Russia and the former USSR, only a few institutions have carried out such planned population labeling of birds for decades. Despite this, the variety of bird species studied in this case was quite large. For example, the population of the black-headed gull Larus ridibundus (Viksne 1968), the coot Fulica atra (Bloom 1973), the crested black Aythya fuligula and the broad-toed Anas clypeata (Mikhelson et al. 1977, Mihelsons et al. 1985) were studied in Latvia in this way, in Estonia - with the blue-headed gull Larus canus (Onno, 1968), in the Oka Reserve - the kingfisher Alcedo atthis (Numerov, Kotyukov 1984, Kotyukov 2000), the golden bee-eater Merops apiaster (Lavrovsky 2000) and the black swift Apus apus (Kashentseva 1982), in the Black Sea - the herring Tringa totanus, Charadrius alexandrinus sea cock (Siohin et al. 1988) and coastal riparia riparia (Chernichko 1998). The largest number of population studies was carried out on hollow-nesting species, and primarily on two of them - the Great Tit Parus major and the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca in different regions (Polivanov 1957, Vilbaste, Leivits 1986, Numerov 1987, 1995, Zimin 1988, Artemyev 1993, 1998, Moskvitin, Gashkov 2000, etc.).
A significant increase in population studies occurred after the founding of ornithological stations, where bird catching and banding was carried out continuously from April to November. In the North-West of the country, this is the Rybachy Biological Station of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the Curonian Spit of the Baltic Sea, operating since 1956, the Ladoga Ornithological Station "Gumbaritsy" of the Biological Institute of St. Petersburg University - since 1968, the Mayachino Institute adjacent to it biology of the Karelian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences - since 1979, as well as the Kivach nature reserve (Kondopoga district of Karelia), where ringing has been carried out since 1971.
These points have become centers of population studies in the North-Western region of Russia, primarily passerines, their migrations and all aspects of territorial behavior. Here, the main model species, in addition to the traditional ones, such as the great tit and pied flycatcher, were also the finch Fringilla coelebs, the green remix of Hippolais icterina, the hawk warbler Sylvia nisoria, and the saver curl S. curruca (Muzaev 1981, Dolnik 1982, Paevsky 1985, 1987, 2008, 2008 , Sokolov 1991, Payevsky et al. 2003), Erithacus rubecula (Zimin 1988), warblers of the genus Acrocephalus (Fedorov 1996, Popelnyuh 2002), warbler Phylloscopus trochilus (Lapshin 1987, Paevsky 2008). On the same and other species of passerines, very interesting population studies were carried out in other regions (Kovshar 1979, Bardin 1986, Shutov 1986, Chernyshov 1986, 1991, Ryabitsev 1993, Ryzhanovsky 1997, Chernichko 1998).
There are a significant number of methods for catching birds - both mass capture of migratory and individual capture of nesting birds. Several monographs are devoted to the description of different methods (Bub 1969, 1991, Ilyichev 1976, Busse 2000). It should be emphasized that such widely used methods of capture as cobweb networks, as well as stationary traps of the Rybachinsky type, can equally well be used for catching migratory birds and for summer capture of individuals of breeding populations. For example, on the Curonian Spit, fishing traps function not only during migration periods, but throughout the summer season. In addition to migrants, local nesting birds are trapped. Many of them are repeatedly caught again in the same or in subsequent years. Individual individuals enter the trap from 2 to 30 times in one summer, and in eight cases even nest in the bushes located within the front of the trap. It can therefore be considered that the local bird population is subjected to regular individual control in the natural environment, which is very important in studies of population ecology (Dolnik, Paevsky 1976, Paevsky 2008).
In addition to ringing with ordinary metal rings, there are at least ten different ways of additional individual tagging of birds in order to visually identify them at a distance (Vinokurov, Kishchinsky 1976). For population studies, especially passerines, the most suitable is the use of light colored plastic rings in different color combinations and partial coloring of the plumage of birds.
Catching and banding of birds in most cases is accompanied by their detailed intravital examination and measurements. Thanks to programs developed at ornithological stations, the opportunity arose very quickly, in seconds, to register
to measure sex and age in birds, take necessary measurements, record the state of molting and the stage of the reproductive cycle (Noskov, Gaginskaya 1972, Dolnik 1976, Vinogradova et al. 1976, Noskov, Rymkevich 1977, Busse 1984, Bub 1985). It is thanks to the intravital examination that banding has turned from a low-efficient activity (regarding the percentage of reports of ringed birds) to a highly efficient process for obtaining important scientific data on birds living in their natural habitat. Trapping and banding materials, combined with intravital analysis, provide opportunities for a wide field of activity in terms of population studies.
Analysis of the age-sex structure of the population using trapping involves knowing the external signs of sex and age, which in some cases represents the most difficult part of the in-vivo examination even when using the above references. The signs of age in birds are species-specific, although there are a number of common details. So, before the end of post-juvenile molting, young people of many species are identified by individual feathers of juvenile attire, which are well different from the plumage of adult birds. After moulting, they can be distinguished from adults by the presence of certain parts of plumage that naturally do not fade at this age, especially some large upper upper secondary minor cover feathers that form a color contrast with the faded part of these feathers. In addition, in many young birds in the autumn the skull is not yet fully pneumatized, which, for example, can be viewed on passerines when the feathers are spread apart and the skin is displaced on the skull.
Depending on the specific tasks posed, the number of recorded parameters during inspection and measurement of birds may increase. Subsequently, these materials are transferred from handwritten magazines to a computer, forming a data bank (Morozov, Efremov 1995, Afanasyev, Mytareva 2005), and are analyzed when solving certain scientific programs. As experience shows, the operator transferring data from the magazine to the computer should be an ornithologist, taking part in the capture and examination of birds. Otherwise, as a rule, many errors occur that negate all the time-consuming work done.
The information that can be obtained using the above methods is very diverse. Conventionally, it can be divided into three groups:
1) the physical indicators of birds: body weight and size (most often the length of the wing), the amount of subcutaneous fat deposits, the stage of the molting process, signs of reproduction (development of the cloacal protrusion, stage of the spot),
2) the species and intraspecific composition of the birds caught: the ratio of the number of individuals of different species, sex and age, the dates and time of day of their capture (however, the subspecies definition of each caught individual without comparison with collection material is impossible in most cases),
3) data on repeated capture of ringed birds and return of rings from places of migration and wintering: the time of appearance on the controlled territory or leaving it, the direction of movement, the timing of the start and end of reproduction, the stages of plumage change (post-juvenile and post-nuptial molting, the ratio of molting and breeding , molting and migration, timing and age of molting onset, its completeness), determination of bird survival by special programs, timing and age of formation of philopathy, i.e. relations with the territory of future nesting.
One of the main goals of population studies is to determine the factors affecting the dynamics of the number of natural animal populations. Determination of the absolute population size in most cases is impossible, and for these estimates, researchers use different relative indicators. The degree of accuracy to which these relative indicators reflect absolute numbers is always a debatable question. First of all, because the number is the result of several population processes - fertility, mortality, emigration and immigration, however, the study of all these components in full in one study is hardly possible.
There are several approaches to quantifying the study of an individual bird population. The first consists of a long-term study of the dynamics of breeding birds, when, according to visual censuses, the abundance and birth rate are recorded annually, and then, according to individual labeling, mortality is analyzed, and the whole complex of relevant environmental factors is compared (by calculating correlations) with the dynamics of abundance and demographic parameters. The second approach is experimental, when manipulations with changes in the density of breeding birds are performed on well-studied populations in order to determine the ratio of the number and capacity of the habitat. The third approach to the study of population processes is based on an analysis of the number of birds caught annually (for the purpose of banding) at ornithological stations and its comparison with environmental factors in order to establish causal relationships. Finally, the fourth approach is that in addition to analyzing the simple number of birds caught, the method of tagging and re-capture has long been used to determine the total number of populations. Wherein
There are different ways to resolve this issue (Coley 1979, Norris, Pollock 1996).
One of the significant questions of the comparative analysis when determining the causes of population dynamics is whether it is necessary to determine other demographic indicators? Theoretically, the ratio between the observed change in numbers and changes in external variables may be sufficient to decide on the causes of the phenomenon, and no other data will be required. However, as was shown (Green 1999), there are several reasons why demographic data can be very valuable when using comparative methods. Firstly, it is possible that the obtained correlation is random, and in fact the estimated factor, although changing similarly to the decreasing number of birds, is not a true cause of the decline. In this case, data on the success of reproduction and survival can reduce the risk of an incorrect diagnosis, since a demographic mechanism of influence can be determined. Secondly, long-term information on the number of ringed birds creates additional population-size indexes to the available data on visual accounting programs for nesting birds. For example, the British Ornithological Trust has developed population-size indices from standardized bird ringing results (Peach et al. 1998). Thirdly, the results of trapping and banding provide an opportunity not only to calculate the annual survival rate by special programs, but also to give estimates of productivity, since the proportion of young birds in autumn catches at ornithological stations can in many cases be considered as a productivity index (Green 1999, Payevsky, Shapoval 2002).
Using any standard methods of catching and examining birds, one can study population and species biology quite efficiently. The physiological state of breeding, migrating, and migratory birds, the timing and duration of individual stages of seasonal life cycles, daily rhythms of activity, and the influence of external factors on all these processes are recorded in most cases without any difficulties and provide a significant database for subsequent analysis. Nevertheless, there are serious difficulties and differences of opinion regarding a number of materials obtained from long-term capture. First of all, this concerns the patterns of population dynamics, revealed by the data of capture.
The ability to study the dynamics of bird numbers from capture data has been discussed in numerous publications, since
The knowledge of the number of birds caught for this purpose can be fraught with sources of fatal errors (for the main points, see: Vegshoy, YasYepkeg 1975, Paevsky 1985, 2008, Sokolov et al. 2001). The method of capture is recognized as a reliable way of taking into account the dynamics of numbers only under strict observance of a number of conditions, namely: capture is carried out from year to year in the same place by the same traps and with the landscape landscape of the place of capture unchanged. When comparing different methods of counting abundance in population studies of birds, it turned out that visual counts along the route give the greatest uncertainty, the bird capture data is the less uncertain, and the nesting pairs counts are the least.
The undoubted advantages of the capture method are the ability to have complete reliability in determining the species affiliation, as well as the sex and age of the birds. At the same time, it is obvious that this method is suitable only for those species that are caught regularly, and the location of nets and traps determines the predominant species composition of the caught birds. The number of birds trapped by traps, such as cinderella, small thrush, and tits, is many times greater than their number, which is taken into account visually. It is very significant that, for example, Rybachinsky type traps catch night migrants at their start, landing, and sometimes at night itself, and their number in traps is as large as the number of day migrants.
Another controversial issue regarding the use of capture data is whether it is possible to study population problems on birds caught in migratory times. A study of the dynamics of the number of passerines according to the catch data in the Eastern Baltic for 42 years (Yoko1ou et al. 2000) revealed a significant positive relationship between the number of local young birds and the number of migratory young birds in 10 of 12 species. It can therefore be argued that the sample of captured birds is quite representative, at least in terms of the number of migrants. Moreover, the age structure of local and migratory populations of different passerine species in the Baltic is very similar (Paevsky 2008). This suggests that, based on the results of the capture of migrants, demographic parameters can be estimated as efficiently as on the results of the capture of birds at breeding sites. Nevertheless, it is of considerable difficulty to determine the reliability of quantitative age-sex ratios obtained from the capture of migrants. At least the following conditions must be observed: lack of selectivity in the capture of birds of a certain age and gender and equal probability of capture at different periods of flight.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, i.e. arguments in favor of a sufficient
the representativeness of samples of captured migratory birds for population studies, there is one circumstance that contradicts this. It concerns only species - night migrants. The phenomenon is called the “coastal effect” and consists in the fact that the proportion of young birds caught on the sea coasts and on the shores of large lakes is very high, from 80 to 95%, and is statistically significantly higher than in the continental parts of the continent, where this indicator is 65-75% (Paevsky 1985, Payevsky 1998).In this regard, the use of the age ratio among caught night migrants in coastal areas for demographic analysis is, at first glance, impossible. Nevertheless, it was shown that using the values of the age ratio as relative, it is possible to analyze a number of demographic issues, including seasonal and gender differences in the age composition of populations.
Finally, another aspect of the use of trapping data is to evaluate the effectiveness of population surveys. For any population study, special analysis is required to determine the size of the controlled area and the size of the controlled portion of the bird population. In most cases, the effectiveness of a survey of the territory by the researcher gradually decreases from its center to the periphery. In addition, the farther the bird lives from places of constant capture, the less likely it is to be caught. In this regard, in addition to determining in one way or another the total number of the studied population, it is necessary to determine the proportion of birds that is annually controlled by capture. This can be done empirically - by the number of years in which birds were not caught, but were alive because they were caught in subsequent years (Dolnik, Paevsky 1982), but can be calculated using stochastic models, for example, according to the Jolly-Seeber model in the Pollock version ( Pollock et al. 1990). The initial assumptions of this model are as follows: each year there is the same time for tagging birds - the summer period, survival and probability of capture vary depending on the age of the birds and the conditions of the year, every year the population has the possibility of immigration and emigration.
As for the study of all the problems of bird mortality, reliable estimates of survival are also necessary in order to interpret the processes that determine the number of populations and its dynamics. The accuracy of survival assessment is also affected by the amount of source material, in most cases, the results of bird banding, and the choice of strategy for their analysis, i.e. one or another calculation method (Bardin 1990, 1993, 1996, Paevsky 2008, Payevsky 2009). Over the past two decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of computer programs for analyzing data on tagged animals. MARK program developed by G. White (Cooch,
White 2006) is the best option for developing stochastic models, and it is currently most often used to calculate annual survival. It allows us to calculate the survival rate according to the findings of the dead birds (real, physical survival) and the data of repeated capture of ringed birds in one annually surveyed breeding population (local “survival”, which includes the probability of the return of the surviving birds to the controlled territory).
As an example of the most complete study of one bird population, one can refer to the collective monograph “The population ecology of finch” (Dolnik 1982). Long-term field and experimental studies of the finch on the Curonian Spit of the Baltic Sea made it possible to describe in detail the population density and its dynamics, all demographic parameters, nutrition and assimilation of food, all stages of reproduction, growth and development, molting, social behavior, post-nest movements and migrations, wintering , productive energy and budgets for time and energy during the breeding season. Most of the data was obtained in the study of birds of a certain age and a known fate, since they were recaptured after ringing and individual color marking.
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